Inks used in fine art reproduction that have been optimized for permanence.
Images are archived, often on CD-ROM, for a specified period. Information necessary to reproduce the print is also archived, including ink, tables, sizes, and media used.
Frequently, an edition will include a number of prints called artist proofs, or AP's. These proofs are normally printed at the time of the initial printing of the edition and are outside of the numbered series. AP's frequently sell for more than prints from an edition.
The proof accepted by the artist that is used as the standard for comparing subsequent prints. Some printers require a signed BAT before production printing can begin.
A clear coating provides protection from smudging, fingerprints, and water droplets. It does not improve the permanence of the print because most fading is due to visible light. On some material, such as canvas, coating can render a print water-resistant, allowing it to be framed without glass.
The process of an artist working closely with a printmaker to produce an original print, especially an original digital print or one requiring considerable alteration of the original image.
An advanced technology that uses profiles of the input and output devices to maximize color accuracy. Targets that include over 3,000 colors are printed and measured with a colorimeter to create profiles for the various ink/media combinations.
Fine watercolor papers have natural deckles on two or four sides. Frequently the look of a print is improved by tearing the paper rather than cutting it, creating "torn deckles." After tearing, a bone knife is used to smooth the edge and create the deckled look.
Digital Fine Art Print:
A fine art print made by any digital process.
A pattern in a digital print that shows the breakdown of an image into individual segments, such as pixels.
D.P.I. (dots per inch):
A measure of the detail of a print. "Apparent d.p.i." refers to the fact that the eye perceives a giclée as having greater detail than it does in physical reality.
Future Ink Test Print:
From time to time, new inks are released to the marketplace that offer improved longevity, a larger color space, or both. A printer may switch production to new inks if the improvements are material and have been certified by an independent laboratory. Prints from files that were made with older inks will look different when printed with new inks. The future ink test print provides an opportunity to evaluate the effect of using new inks on the print.
Giclée (Fr. "a spraying of ink"):
A common term for fine art digital prints.
High Resolution Scan:
Professional scan at an output resolution of 150 dpi or 300 dpi using color optimized for archival inks on fine art media.
Fine art papers that are stocked by a printer.
International Association of Fine Art Digital Printmakers, the trade association of leading digital printing studios.
Documents describing the precise layout of a print or prints on a sheet of paper. The layout indicates both the exact size of the prints and the amount of white space around each print.
The materials to be printed on, such as watercolor paper, canvas, copper, wood veneer, cotton, plastic and exotic papers like Japanese Kochi.
Original Digital Print:
Artwork that is created entirely or largely on the computer, often by scanning in individual elements and then combining them electronically.
A Kodak process for scanning transparencies (slides) and storing them on CD in a format known as Photo CD. Acceptable results can be achieved from Photo CD's, but the professional version is required to create large enough files.
A printer head technology that uses micro-electric firing of crystals to control the flow of ink to the substrate.
The file used to produce a final proof that is archived for producing current and future printings of an edition.
The person who does the actual printing of a digital image. A printmaker uses a printer (the equipment) to make a digital print.
Print On Demand:
The digital process enables the reproduction of prints over a long period of time with consistency, allowing orders of small numbers of prints whenever needed. While the process offers a high degree of consistency, editions that require exact matching should be printed at one time.
A smaller print - often 8 x 10 inches - used to evaluate a file prior to printing.
It is generally possible to resize files so prints can be made either smaller or larger. Significant upsizing is usually not successful, but an adjustment of up to 20 percent is acceptable.
RIP (Raster Image Processing):
Software that translates computer imaging into a format usable by digital printers.
A print created on Roland printers using six highly stable pigmented inks rather than the standard four; provides extended tonal range and improved highlight detail, and uses roll stock to produce prints of up to 52" wide and virtually any length.
The process of converting a transparency, negative, slide, original or print to a digital file.
The sheet of paper or other material that will be printed on. The largest Iris printers accommodate sheets up to 35 x 46.5 inches.
Transparency, Museum Quality:
High-quality reproduction requires copy transparencies made by photographers experienced in art reproduction. Lighting is very important in terms of evenness, color, and lack of any specular highlights. Transparencies should either be 4 x 5 or 8 x 10 inches, not a 35mm slide. The pre-press process creates a print that looks as close as possible to the transparency, not the original, so the transparency should reflect the original as accurately as possible.
For more information on giclée printmaking at Hunter Editions, please contact us at 1-888-278-4747 or send us email.